Meaning and Speech Acts.
Journal of Pragmatics 17 1 : 31 — Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 23, Retrieved September 23, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Recently, pragmatics has expanded into a wide and somewhat vague topic which includes anything relating to the way in which people communicate that cannot be captured by conventional linguistic analysis.
Within pragmatics, discourse analysis the study of language in discourse has become a major focus of attention. Morris as the branch of semiotics that studies the relation of signs to interpreters, in contrast with semantics, which studies the relation of signs to designata.
There has been some doubt about whether it is a homogeneous domain Searle, Kiefer, and Bierwisch Grice showed that many aspects of utterance meaning traditionally regarded as conventional, or semantic, could be more explanatorily treated as conversational, or pragmatic. For Gricean pragmatists, the crucial feature of pragmatic interpretation is its inferential nature: the hearer is seen as constructing and evaluating a hypothesis about the communicator's intentions, based, on the one hand, on the meaning of the sentence uttered, and on the other, on contextual information and general communicative principles that speakers are normally expected to observe.
For definition and surveys see Levinson In early work, the semantics-pragmatics distinction was often seen as coextensive with the distinction between truth-conditional and non-truth-conditional meaning Gazdar On this approach, pragmatics would deal with a range of disparate phenomena, including a Gricean conversational inference, b the inferential recognition of illocutionary-force, and c the conventional meanings of illocutionary-force indicators and other non-truth-conditional expressions such as but, please, unfortunately Recanati From the cognitive point of view, these phenomena have little in common.
Within the cognitive science literature in particular, the semantics-pragmatics distinction is now more generally seen as coextensive with the distinction between decoding and inference or conventional and conversational meaning.
On this approach, all conventional meaning, both truth-conditional and non-truth-conditional, is left to linguistic semantics, and the aim of pragmatic theory is to explain how the gap between sentence meaning and utterance interpretation is inferentially bridged. A pragmatic theory of this type is developed in D. Sperber and D. Wilson Grice's distinction between saying and implicating crosscuts the semantics-pragmatics distinction as defined above.
For Grice, "what is said" corresponds to the truth-conditional content of an utterance, and "what is implicated" is everything communicated that is not part of what is said. Grice saw the truth-conditional content of an utterance as determined partly by the conventional semantic meaning of the sentence uttered, and partly by contextual pragmatic factors governing disambiguation and reference assignment.
He saw conventional semantic implicatures as determined by the meaning of discourse connectives such as but, moreover and so, and analyzed them as signaling the performance of higher-order speech acts such as contrasting, adding and explaining Grice An alternative analysis is developed in D. Blakemore Among nonconventional pragmatic implicatures, the best known are the conversational ones: These are beliefs that have to be attributed to the speaker in order to preserve the assumption that she was obeying the "cooperative principle" with associated maxims of truthfulness, informativeness, relevance, and clarity , in saying what she said.
In Grice's framework, generalized conversational implicatures are "normally" carried by use of a certain expression, and are easily confused with conventional lexical meaning Grice In Grice's view, many earlier philosophical analyses were guilty of such confusion. Within the cognitive science literature, several approaches to pragmatics are currently being pursued. There are computational attempts to implement the Gricean program via rules for the recognition of coherence relations among discourse segments Asher and Lascarides , Hobbs Relations between the Gricean program and speech-act theory are being reassessed Tsohatzidis The cognitive foundations of pragmatics and the relations of pragmatics to neighboring disciplines are still being explored Sperber and Wilson , Sperber Despite this diversity of approaches, pragmatics now seems to be established as a relatively homogenous domain.
LINGUIST List 12.1479
Carston, R. Davis, S. Pragmatics: A Reader. New York : Oxford University Press, Gazdar, G. Pragmatics: Implicature, Presupposition and Logical Form. New York : Academic Press, Grice, H. Cambridge, MA, Studies in the Way of Words.
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Hobbs, J. Horn, L. Washington, DC, Hugly, P. Levinson, S. Verschueren and M. Amsterdam: Benjamins, Morris, C. Neurath, R. Carnap, and C.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Recanati, F. Searle, J. Kiefer, and M. Bierwisch, eds.
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The lexicon-encyclopedia interface. Oxford: Elsevier. He has been already posted the English article to me. Thank you very very much. It has several articles dealing with negation and focus, and though it brings examples from Semitic languages, it was written with a general-linguistics audience in mind. D Haihua Pan, Ph. Themes in Greek Linguistics, II. Amsterdam, Netherlands : Benjamins, Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics, IX.
Negation and Polarity: Syntax and Semantics. Theoretical Linguistics and Grammatical Description. Amsterdam : Benjamins, Discourse Configurational Languages. New York : Oxford UP, Sainte-Foy : PU Laval, Focus and Grammatical Relations in Creole Languages.