Manual Shadow of the Wolf: An Apache Tale

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In Antiquity, the she-wolf was identified as a symbol of Rome by both the Romans themselves and nations under the Roman rule. The Lupa Romana was an iconic scene that represented in the first place the idea of romanitas , being Roman.

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When it was used in the Roman Provinces , it can be seen as an expression of loyalty to Rome and the emperor. The Romans generally seem to have refrained from intentionally harming wolves.

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For instance, they were not hunted for pleasure but only in order to protect herds that were out at pasture , and not displayed in the venationes , either. The special status of the wolf was not based on national ideology, but rather was connected to the religious importance of the wolf to the Romans. The comedian Plautus used the image of wolves to ponder the cruelty of man as a wolf unto man.


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The Slavic languages share a term for " werewolf " derived from a Common Slavic vuko-dlak "wolf-furr". The wolf as a mythological creature is greatly linked to Balkan and Serbian mythology and cults. In the mythology of the Turkic peoples , the wolf is a revered animal. In the Turkic mythology , wolves were believed to be the ancestors of their people. In Northern China a small Turkic village was raided by Chinese soldiers, but one small baby was left behind.

An old she-wolf with a sky-blue mane named Asena found the baby and nursed him, then the she-wolf gave birth to half-wolf, half-human cubs, from whom the Turkic people were born. Also in Turkic mythology it is believed that a gray wolf showed the Turks the way out of their legendary homeland Ergenekon , which allowed them to spread and conquer their neighbours. As with most ancient peoples' beliefs, the wolf was thought to possess spiritual powers, and that parts of its body retained specific powers that could be used by people for various needs.

In the Secret History of the Mongols , the Mongol peoples are said to have descended from the mating of a doe gua maral and a wolf boerte chino. In Mongolian folk medicine , eating the intestines of a wolf is said to alleviate chronic indigestion, while sprinkling food with powdered wolf rectum is said to cure hemorrhoids. It states that when God explained to the wolf what it should and should not eat, he told it that it may eat one sheep out of 1, The wolf however misunderstood and thought God said kill 1, sheep and eat one. In Japanese mythology , grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching them to protect their crops from wild boars and deer.

The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolf like creature and a goddess. Unlike fox and bear, the wolf has always been feared and hated in Finland, and wolf has been the symbol of destruction and desolation, to the extent that the very name of wolf in Finnish language , susi , means also "a useless thing" and the by-name hukka means perdition and annihilation.

While bear has been the sacred animal of Finns, wolves have always been hunted and killed mercilessly. The wolf has been represented as implacable and malicious predator, killing more than it manages to eat. In most Native American cultures, wolves are considered a medicine being associated with courage, strength, loyalty, and success at hunting. Wolves were generally revered by Aboriginal Canadians that survived by hunting, but were thought little of by those that survived through agriculture.

Some Alaska Natives including the Nunamiut of both northern and northwestern Alaska respected the wolf's hunting skill and tried to emulate the wolf in order to hunt successfully. First Nations such as Naskapi as well as Squamish and Lil'wat view the wolf as a daytime hunting guide. The Netsilik Inuit and Takanaluk-arnaluk believed that the sea-woman Nuliayuk's home was guarded by wolves.

Wolves were feared by the Tsilhqot'in , who believed that contact with wolves would result in nervous illness or death. In the cardinal directions of Midwestern Native Americans , the wolf represented the west , but it represented the southeast for the Pawnee tribe. According to the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first creature to experience death. Upon being freed from the bag, the humans killed the wolf, thus bringing death into the world. Native Americans have long seen the wolf as an animal of power.

Many tribes credit the actual creator of the earth to be a wolf. The Arikara and Ojibwe believed a wolfman spirit made the Great Plains for them and for other animals. Many tribes consider wolves to be closely related to humans. The Navajo tribe was known for performing healing ceremonies where they would call upon wolves to restore health to their ill.

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Wolves were admired for their superb hunting skills. Prayers were offered in honor of wolves before they went out of hunting excursions. Before battles, Apache warriors would pray, sing, and dance to gain the teamwork, strength, and bravery of wolves. The Pawnee, being both an agricultural and hunting people, associated the wolf with both corn and the bison; the "birth" and "death" of the Wolf Star Sirius was to them a reflection of the wolf's coming and going down the path of the Milky Way known as Wolf Road. The Navajo tribe feared taboo-breaking witches nearly always male in wolves' clothing called yee naaldlooshii , literally "with it, he goes on all fours".

There is an Omaha legend in which a wolf guides a wounded warrior back to his camp, alerting him whenever there are rival warriors nearby and showing him the easiest path. There is a story that was pushed around as Cherokee legend, Two Wolves , [43] [49] that is often referenced in media but actually has ties to Christian-style parables that was told by Minister Billy Graham and actually mentioned, specifically, eskimo [50] , and because it's been attributed to the Cherokee — the one that goes around the Cherokee world has a deeper meaning and negates the "GOOD" VS "EVIL" trope [51].

In Cherokee beliefs, there was a clan called the wolf people. They would never kill a wolf, believing the spirit of the slain wolf would revenge its death. The Cherokee also believed that if a hunter showed respect and prayed before and after killing an animal such as a deer, a wolf, a fox, or an opossum would guard his feet against frostbite. The Tewa tribe believed that wolves held the powers of the east and were one of the zenith power-medicine animals.

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The wolf is a national symbol of Chechnya. The Bible contains 13 references to wolves, usually as metaphors for greed and destructiveness. In the New Testament , Jesus is quoted to have used wolves as illustrations to the dangers His followers would have faced should they follow him Matthew , Acts , Matthew [55]. The Book of Genesis was interpreted in Medieval Europe as stating that nature exists solely to support man Genesis , who must cultivate it Genesis , and that animals are made for his own purposes Genesis — The wolf is repeatedly mentioned in the scriptures as an enemy of flocks: a metaphor for evil men with a lust for power and dishonest gain, as well as a metaphor for Satan preying on innocent God-fearing Christians, contrasted with the shepherd Jesus who keeps his flock safe.

However, legends surrounding Saint Francis of Assisi show him befriending a wolf. Francis of Assisi , who was living in Gubbio at the time took pity on the townsfolk, and went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, but the saint pressed on and when he found the wolf he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St.

Because the wolf had "done evil out of hunger" the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly, and in return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again. In Canto I of Dante 's Inferno , the pilgrim encounters a she-wolf blocking the path to a hill bathed in light.

The she-wolf represents the sins of concupiscence and incontinence.

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She is prophecised by the shade of Virgil to one day be sent to Hell by a greyhound. Much of the symbolism Jesus used in the New Testament revolved around the pastoral culture of Israel, and explained his relationship with his followers as analogous to that of a good shepherd protecting his flock from wolves.

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An innovation in the popular image of wolves started by Jesus includes the concept of the wolf in sheep's clothing , which warns people against false prophets. It appeared in the seventh century edition of the Physiologus , which infused pagan tales with the spirit of Christian moral and mystical teaching. The Physiologus portrays wolves as being able to strike men dumb on sight, and of having only one cervical vertebra. Dante included a she-wolf, representing greed and fraud , in the first canto of the Inferno. The Malleus Maleficarum , first published in , states that wolves are either agents of God sent to punish the wicked, or agents of Satan , sent with God's blessing to test the faith of believers.

The hagiography of the 16th Century Blessed Sebastian de Aparicio includes the account that in his youth, his life was saved in a seemingly-miraculous way by a wolf. During an outbreak of the bubonic plague in his town in , his parents were forced to isolate him from the community in quarantine , and built a hidden shelter for him in the woods, where they left him.

While lying there helpless, due to his illness, a she-wolf found the hiding spot and, poking her head into his hiding spot, sniffed and then bit and licked an infected site on his body, before running off. He began to heal from that moment. Wolves are mentioned three times in the Qur'an , specifically in the Sura Yusuf. Surely we went off racing and left Yusuf by our goods, so the wolf devoured him, and you will not believe us though we are truthful.

The Christian symbolism where the wolf represents the devil, or evil, being after the "sheep" who are the living faithful , is found frequently in western literature. In Milton's Lycidas the theological metaphor is made explicit:. This was the name of a 19th-century Cree chief.


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