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From an information theoretic perspective, entanglement means that the two entangled entities share bits. The big computer that runs the universe does not implement a classical physics engine, where every object is constrained to a particular position and has its very own data structure stored at an index with that position, but some information can appear in two or more positions at once. The electron of our friend at Alpha Centauri literally shares a bit with ours. Observation is an act of entanglement, too: by observing the spin of an electron, the observer gets entangled with it, and thereby with everything else the electron shares state.

The first implication of quantum mechanics: that unobserved states are superpositional, i. Quantum computation is not somehow more powerful than Turing computation: a Turing machine has infinite amounts of memory and processing time at its disposal, so it can run an arbitrarily large quantum world just fine. Unfortunately, our university does not own an infinite Turing machine, so all models of quantum processes have to be run on classical computers, and if we make the quantum system larger, then we need to add new computers much faster to our data center than we add particles to the simulated quantum world.

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The second implication of quantum mechanics, non-locality, is confusing for people that would like to believe that the location of things is ontologically real, but it does not bother computer scientists like me that think about things as information that has to be computed by the universe. Non-locality simply means that the programmer of the Minecraft world that you and me inhabit sometimes uses the same data to code for objects that appear at different coordinates.

It saves a lot of memory, I guess.

Lecture 11 QFT in curved spacetime, Unruh

But most entanglement is not confusing, because it simply happens to objects that are in close proximity in spacetime. They exchange forces, which means that they influence each other, and consequently begin to share some of their state. Entanglement can be seen as a function of spacetime. According to Mark van Raamsdonk the physicist featured in the Nature commentary , we should consider the opposite interpretation.

What if entanglement does not result from spacetime, but spacetime is an emergent result of entanglement?

Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime

To use a metaphor, for the programmer of a Minecraft universe, it means that we throw away our current codebase, which describes everything with a 3d matrix, and diminishing relations between neighboring blocks, depending on their distance. Our new codebase only uses a set of blocks and their interactive relations with other blocks.

The appearance of a world that is neatly organized into a space happens because some of these relations will be stronger and others weaker. Proximity is the result of entanglement, not the other way around. Can this work for our physical universe, too? According to van Raamsdonk, it might, and he uses an insight by Juan Maldacena from to argue for it.


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Maldacena used a dramatically simplified model of a relativistic spacetime, the infinite three dimensional Anti-de Sitter space, which contains particles and has gravity, and compared it to a two-dimensional quantum field made from entangled particles that enclose an infinite universe and does not use gravity a conformal field theory.

Maldacena could show that the quantum field, which can be represented as a tensor network, is completely equivalent to the Anti-de Sitter space.

We can perform all computations that give rise to whatever happens in the gravitational spacetime model using the much simpler formulation of the tensor network. The entangled quantum field turns out to be just a different representation of the spacetime universe. The mathematical equivalence between toy models of a relativistic universe and a quantum universe does of course not mean that we have a grand unified theory just yet.

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I am struck by the elegant simplicity of the idea. Particles may share properties, which means that they are entangled, and some of these entangled properties result in what appears to be spacetime to us.

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Computationally, this makes a huge difference in how we calculate our universe: we start no longer out with a giant matrix that stores all particles at the indices of their position in spacetime. Spacetime is an emergent result of the calculations. We can give up on the fiction of the presupposed matrix completely, if we can show that we can compute relative positions as a function of the tensors that describe entangled particles. An even more fascinating and outlandish! For example, a photon that travels through spacetime without interactions will neither change its state because no relativistic time passes for that particle itself , and will manifest itself as a particle when hitting an observer, but will behave as a wave during the journey.

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Quantum Mechanics in Curved Space-time : Jürgen Audretsch :

Rahaman email: rahaman iucaa. Abstract It is shown in this paper that the geometrically structureless space—time manifold is converted instantaneously to a curved, a Riemannian, or may be a Finslerian space—time with an associated Riemannian space—time, on the appearance of quantum Weyl spinors dependent only on time in a background flat manifold and having the symplectic property in the abstract space of spinors. Three roads to quantum gravity. Google Scholar. Quantum gravity. Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Garay LJ. Gasperini M, Veneziano G. Ashtekar A, Lewandowski J.

Rethinking Quantum Mechanics and Inverted Spacetime from a Computationalist Perspective

Ashtekar A. AIP Conf. Bojowald M. Birrel and P. Quantum fields in curved space.

Kober M. The theory of spinors. Dover publications, Mineola, NY. Penrose and W. Spinors and spacetime.


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