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Gratis verzending 30 dagen bedenktijd en gratis retourneren Kies zelf het bezorgmoment Dag en nacht klantenservice. Anderen bekeken ook. James E. Katz Magic in the Air , Gerard Goggin Cell Phone Culture 42, James E Katz Perpetual Contact 45, Maria Perevalova Contextualization of the Mobile Internet 64, Use centers primarily on keitai e-mail, while the Web is used primarily for wallpaper and ring-tone downloads.
The other carriers soon followed suit in launching this type of service, which has come to be called, collectively, short message.
Personal, Portable, Pedestrian
J-Phone now Vodafone introduced Internet e-mail for keitai in November ; Japanese users gradually chose this type of e-mail over short messages because it is cross-platform and allows for longer messages. From a user perspective, however, there is little difference between text messages sent as short messages and those sent as Internet e-mail. Users refer to both as meiru mail , and in this book we call both keitai e-mail.
Just as with pagers, keitai e-mail has been adopted by more women than men, and use is heaviest among those in their teens and twenties. How is keitai e-mail being used by young people and with what kinds of social effects? Survey data show that students who are heavy users of keitai e-mail tend to have more friends and to be more sociable Matsuda b. While reporting similar survey results, Nakamura also states that heavy keitai users exhibit a fear of loneliness and a lack of strength in enduring loneliness.
As well, young people often use emoji emoticons that are programmed into the handsets, and send long messages enabled by the —3, character length of keitai e-mail despite the difficulties of one-thumb input. They also mix graphics, video, sound, and Web links into their messages Miyake ; Nihongo-Gaku In chapter 13, Ito and Okabe look in detail at what kind of messages are exchanged and with what frequency. Just as with pagers, the keitai is not always a medium of yasashisa. Turning to the keitai Internet, Kenichi Ishii , 57 offers the following summary of his analysis of the World Internet Project Japan survey : The mobile Internet has positive effects on sociability with friends, while the PC Internet does not have such effects.
Email via a mobile phone is exchanged mainly with close friends or family, whereas email via a PC is exchanged with business colleagues. These results suggest that PC diverge in terms of social functions; in other words, mobile Internet use has more in common with time-enhancing home appliances such as the telephone, while PC Internet use has more in common with the time-displacing technology of TV. The experiences in Japan show that neither technological advantages nor telecommunication policy promote a new type of telecommunication service. Japanese experience after demonstrates that user needs have brought about the high penetration rate and unique usage patterns e.
The Japanese government has placed political importance more on broadband than on mobile phones. See chapter 7 for a comparison of keitai Internet and PC Internet use. From Rejection to Utilization of Keitai I have described how, in the late s, keitai were criticized by the general public as devices used by young people for trivial personal communication, closely linked to poor manners and superficial relationships. Since practically all college students have keitai now, there is a project under way to use keitai for real-time teaching evaluation as part of a faculty development effort Takeyama and Inomata ; Hara and Takahashi Surveys indicate that keitai use has not been and is not currently exclusive to young people or to private uses.
Although those in their twenties have the highest ownership rates, those in their thirties rank next.
In the Mobile Communication Research Group survey, These users generally have separate keitai Discourses of Keitai in Japan 37 handsets for personal and business use. Heavy users of voice calls tend to be men and those working full time; As it was in the early adoption years, keitai continue to be used as media for work. After initial tentative usage, the technology has demonstrated a surprising power for managers who are in demand for speedy decision-making and for the intensely competitive front lines of sales and marketing.
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The article goes on to describe e-mail exchanges between the president of a company and the head of personnel as the president is in transit on a train. In this way, keitai e-mail has been spreading from the base of business e-mail use that started with the PC Internet.
Conclusion I have explored various developments in the public discourse concerning keitai from the s. Through this process, I have contextualized the contributions to this book as well as reviewed additional pertinent popular and research literature from Japan.
In contemporary societies characterized by the presence of mobile media, the studies in this book will speak to the specific contexts that readers bring to bear, and will no doubt provide insight into contemporary human relations and social systems. Notes 1. As young users transitioned to the cellular phone, however, the low-cost PHS came to be used differently from the cellular. Research shows that In this article, from the magazine Kuriiku, May 20, , as well as the others cited by Kawaura, the word keitai is not yet being used. In other work Matsuda b; , I analyze statements that keitai have personal health effects from the perspective of rumor and urban legend, describing the process through which keitai is received by society.lingrudarhia.tk
Personal, Portable, and Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life
Jibetarian have a deep relationship with keitai. Sociological inquiry into Japanese youth in the s include Shinji Miyadai ; and Tomita and Fujimura In addition, Satoshi Kotani provides an outline of the evolution of youth studies since the s. Hashimoto has produced an English-language paper on the influence of keitai on youth.
Other works on pagers and youth include those by Fujimoto and Tomita et al. Matsui ; a; b has analyzed the changing image of pagers. For example, keitai do not reduce sleep or television viewing time as much as the PC Internet does Kamimura and Ida Further, young people generally use keitai at the same time as they are engaged in other activities, such as watching TV, eating, or conversing with friends Nakano More information on user demographics, adoption, and use patterns can be found in studies by Nakamura b , Mikami et al.
Discourses of Keitai in Japan 39 In the past few years, the term puchi iede petite running away from home has become popular. Several years ago, U. See note Studies of college students, who are heavy keitai e-mail users, include Okada, Matsuda, and Habuchi ; Matsuda b ; and Tsuji and Mikami This chapter examines the history of keitai in terms of its social shaping as a medium and a consumer item. A starting point for this analysis is theories of the social construction of technological systems Bijker, Hughes, and Pinch By contrast, Fischer stresses the role of consumption; he believes that in order to understand the social shaping of technology it is crucial to include consumers in the analysis.
My study of Japanese mobile media demonstrates that the role of the consumer is absolutely critical.
We have been conducting studies since on mobile media use in Japan see chapters 6, 8, 9; Okada and Matsuda ; Matsuda et al. The latter half of the s saw the rapid adoption of mobile phones, and youth were identified as the leaders of this trend. It is extremely difficult to grasp the views of these users through the random abstractions presented in a standard survey form. At that point in time, adoption was still below the 50 percent mark, and survey return rates from the core keitai adoption population of young people were relatively low.
Because of these difficulties, our research group approached these new trends by conducting several interview studies on the streets of the two major Japanese cities, Tokyo and Osaka, targeting areas where young people gather in large numbers. These areas are popular gathering places for young people in their teens and twenties; they emerged as youth culture centers during the blossoming of consumer culture in the s. We conducted our spot interviews twice at each of the districts: in Shibuya in the summer of and , and in Minami in the winter of and the summer of Our research has continued as an interactive process since then.
We conducted a study among college students based on survey questionnaires in and again in When referring to interview data, I note the gender, age, location, and interview date for the research subjects. Personalization In the history of mobile media in Japan, the first service is generally considered to be the wireless telephone, introduced on merchant ships in The main purpose of this service was to connect the vessels in port to telephones on land.
Three years later, an experimental service that connected trains to land line telephones was implemented on the Kintetsu Express running between Osaka and Nagoya. By this time, the concept of keitai had become a telephone that could be used away from the location to which it was conventionally fixed, such as an office or an organization. The keitai was originally developed for official uses and for organizational purposes, as manifested by its birth as a shared telephone.
Before it became the norm for each Youth Culture and the Shaping of Japanese Mobile Media 43 individual to have his or her own keitai device, a keitai was typically provided to one representative within a group of people, for example, to the manager at a construction site where there was no fixed telephone line. However, early keitai were typically not owned by an individual but were leased to a group under the name of the representative, and therefore when that person could not answer the phone, it was picked up by somebody else instead.
The same can be said for the pager, which was a popular mobile medium before the keitai. Pagers were primarily used by companies and other organizations and were not provided to each individual. Rather, they were shared among a group, and a salesperson would take an available one outside the office as necessary.