e-book Intelligent Assistive Robots: Recent Advances in Assistive Robotics for Everyday Activities

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Seller Inventory ING Language: English. Brand new Book. Seller Inventory LIB Publisher: Springer , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title This book deals with the growing challenges of using assistive robots in our everyday activities along with providing intelligent assistive services. Sonenberg, Computing Reviews, October, "About this title" may belong to another edition of this title.

Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. In order for ML algorithms to make good classifications, they need to learn from a lot of data. The brain-computer-interface BCI field is encouraged to share databases so multiple researchers can access the data to improve their algorithms, but ensuring participant confidentiality may be a substantial task in this context With the potential for the mainstream to expand the applications of BCI, researchers are calling for an international agreement to ensure people have a "private mental life", e.

Eye gaze cameras only record reflections off the cornea, but there are other input methods that we might consider that have higher privacy risks. For instance, a camera positioned to record a child's face could gauge emotions and adjust the demands of a task automatically. Parents could be very concerned about the risk of their child's image being shared outside the technology.

We have also used ML to optimize the robot functions available to the user. In the studies above, we used different degrees of autonomy to match the level of support the child needed. If the child was able to control all the system degrees of freedom, the robot was in a teleoperated mode 4 switches ; if the child was able to control up to a certain number of movements, those movements triggered pre-recorded robot actions e.

The robot was even programmed to be in a fully autonomous mode, requiring no user intervention other than initiation to perform a sequence of actions. However, pre-programming takes time, so we are examining ML for the robot to automatically provide the correct level of autonomy for children to be successful in tasks. For example, in our mobile robot switch skills tasks, the system is detecting the performance of the children, and will perform the switch presses that the child does not.

In another study, a joy-stick controlled robot is learning how physical "hand-over-hand" help is provided at the user interface by an aide and then applying that same help autonomously in subsequent iterations, without the aide needing to do it Robots can also have built in capabilities such as picking and placing an object, thus releasing the child from the low-level commands necessary to achieve high-level tasks.

1. Introduction

The robot system could adapt as the child learns to take on the tasks themselves. The robotic system could "grow with the child", taking over more functionality early and sensing changes in the child's skills and gradually turning full control over to the child as their capability increases. This would keep the child actively involved in using the tool.

However, this issue of autonomy can be of concern for parents due to responsibility and trust 6. If the robot is fully autonomous, it may do a questionable function, one that an aide or the child would not want. The way decisions are made by the robot may not be known to the programmer or clinicians. The system could behave in ways that the child will not claim as their own An autonomous AI system could learn only some things, and never present the other options to the user Researchers and clinicians should inform children and parents about these issues, and a potential technical solution could be to use supervised autonomous interaction 6.

A primary concern when dealing with personal robots and AI is safety. Special care is needed to build safety into the robotic systems, such as force sensors, cameras, and tactile sensors that stop the robot when they reach a threshold 6. The International Organization for Standardization ISO is the international standards for safety requirements for personal robots. Future perspectives on AI. As we go forward, there will be many AI innovations that could potentially be beneficial to implement in assistive robots for augmentative manipulation.

For instance, interfaces that accept the idiosyncratic gestures or natural language of children with disabilities could expand the available inputs for control of the robot. AI assistants or social robots could provide not only manipulation, but also a social play-mate. But, we will have to be cautious in our choices. As in implementation of other complex assistive technology 40 , a client-centered, multi- or interdisciplinary approach will be needed by teams considering implementing AI to ensure perspectives of children, families, and health, science and social science professions are considered.

We need to ensure that we are doing what is best for the child. Rather than just compensating for lost function e. Improvements in technology should not be the goal, but improvements should be valued for how they can support goals in healthy development and functional independence There are resources we can use to guide ethical technology design and clinical use, and we wihave to consider the ethics around both robots and AI.

One example is Riek and Howard's code of ethics for human robot interaction, which covers human dignity, design, legal and social considerations Some of the concerns raised in this paper are covered in this code the right to privacy, trustworthiness, transparent decision paths. The Asilomar artificial intelligence principles provide a guide to researchers, business leaders, and others In order to guide an informed approach to the use of assistive robots with ML enhanced inputs and autonomy, we will need to critically examine the expectations, experiences and potential ethical implications for children and their families.

We are looking forward to next steps in our research program involving qualitative research with ethicists to build the knowledge-base in this emerging area. We are living in interesting times, and many interesting conversations and collaborations will occur because of it. Sullivan D. Google's using a machine learning technology called RankBrain to help deliver its search results.

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Here's what's we know about it. McCarthy J, Hayes P. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. In: Michie D. Machine intelligence. Elsevier, ; p. Samuel AL. Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers.

Perspective ARTICLE

Rashidi P, Mihailidis A. A survey on ambient-assisted living tools for older adults. Stewart J.

Tesla's autopilot was involved in another deadly car crash. Cook AM, Alvarez L.


Intelligent Assistive Robots

Ethical and social implications of the use of robots in rehabilitation practice. Robotic assistive technologies.

CRC Press, ; p. Garvey C. Cambridge: Havard University Press, Parham LD.

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