While the present paper does seek to elaborate upon this journey for the Yezidis in Transcaucasia, Germany, Canada, and the USA, its main focus remains the analysis of the political developments in the Yezidi heartland of Northern Iraq. This is so that the reader may have a fuller picture of the catalysts spurring this Yezidi reimagining.
On the one hand, you have the traditional Yezidi leadership caught within a complex series of client-patron relationships with Kurdish leaders: ethnic identification is leveraged for promises of influence and power. While, on the other hand, newly minted Yezidi military commanders, as well as grassroot figures and Yezidi NGOs, are trying to establish themselves as heads of a Yezidi community that is undeniably distinct from their Kurdish neighbours. This paper will further show that the withdrawal of the Kurdish Peshmerga in the face of the ISIS attack in , the half-hearted responses of the regional Kurdish and Federal Iraqi governments, all coupled with the stalled return of Yezidi refugees contributed to a growing Yezidi movement to cement their identity, as well as satiate a growing urgency to define themselves as a distinct ethnoreligious entity.
Abstract: Taking Iran-Tajikistan cultural relations as its case study, this article tends to say that despite the important role of culture and civilization in foreign policy, politics and the political factors also have a vital place in shaping the relations between states in global and regional levels. Moreover, as the author argues, political factors play even more important role and are able to somehow overshadow the common cultural and civilizational ties. The destiny of Iran-Tajikistan cultural cooperation, especially the efforts in reviving the ancestral Arabo-Persian alphabet to replace the Russian Cyrillic one, explains how politics in general and political differences in particular, brought those enthusiastic and cherished efforts into a stalemate if not a deadlock.
Abstract: This study investigated the important relationship between environmental factors and economic growth within the context of adaptation to the environment. A time series analysis was applied to test the existence of a long-run relationship between the series and the coefficient definitions of the variables were made. In addition to descriptive analysis, we utilize binary probit regressions to investigate determinants of the probability of finding a job through social contacts.
The study finds that social networks are a popular method to find a job in Algeria and Jordan but not for skilled jobs.
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Such methods increase the probability of obtaining less secured informal jobs. Abstract: Sustainable development consists of a long-term, integrated approach to develop and achieve a healthy community by jointly addressing economic, environmental, and social issues, whilst avoiding the over consumption of key natural resources for managers and government planners in public management. Therefore, since the sustainable development refers to three major dimensions, this study aims to identify and rank the sustainable development components influencing and improving the development level of Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran through using hierarchical analysis method AHP and Expert Choice software.
The obtained results analyzed and ranked the factors using collected comments. Expert Choice software also indicated that the economic had the highest effect on improving the development level and the social and the environmental factors were the next priorities, respectively.
Therefore, according to the results of this research, decision makers can plan to increase the development level of the study area. Abstract: This essay critically evaluates the analytic literature concerned with causal connections between Islam and economic performance. It focuses on works since , when this literature was last surveyed. Among the findings are the following: Ramadan fasting by pregnant women harms prenatal development; Islamic charities mainly benefit the middle class; Islam affects educational outcomes less through Islamic schooling than through structural factors that handicap learning as a whole; Islamic finance hardly affects Muslim financial behavior; and low generalized trust depresses Muslim trade.
The last feature reflects the Muslim world's delay in transitioning from personal to impersonal exchange. The delay resulted from the persistent simplicity of the private enterprises formed under Islamic law. Weak property rights reinforced the private sector's stagnation by driving capital out of commerce and into rigid waqfs. Waqfs limited economic development through their inflexibility and democratization by restraining the development of civil society.
Parts of the Muslim world conquered by Arab armies are especially undemocratic, which suggests that early Islamic institutions, including slave-based armies, were particularly critical to the persistence of authoritarian patterns of governance. States have contributed themselves to the persistence of authoritarianism by treating Islam as an instrument of governance.
As the world started to industrialize, non-Muslim subjects of Muslim-governed states pulled ahead of their Muslim neighbors by exercising the choice of law they enjoyed under Islamic law in favor of a Western legal system.
Peer-Reviewed Articles Review: Winter 2018/12222 (Part 4)
This paper examines such a case by disentangling the complicated relationships between telecommunications, city planning, and economic development in one modern settler-colonial context. The author explores how planning and development norms are adulterated in Palestine-Israel to further a select set of interests, in the service of an evolving national project. Palestinian and Israeli demographics and telecommunications infrastructure on both sides of the Green Line are examined, revealing the role of these technologies in facilitating population dispersal, economic exploitation, and political control at various stages of settler colonialism.
German policy decisions in the last two decades, including the sale of nuclear-capable submarines to Israel, seem to confirm this view. In addition to examining how this identification plays out more broadly in society, the article also attempts to locate possible fissures that could give rise to changes in official policy. Abstract: One of the sub-branches of Central Semitic, Northwest Semitic, contains a number of languages with no established hierarchical relation among them: Ugaritic, Aramaic, Canaanite, Deir Alla, and Samalian.
Over the years, scholars have attempted to establish a more accurate sub-branching for Northwest Semitic or to suggest a different genetic affiliation for some languages, usually Ugaritic. We will also address arguments that Ugaritic is a Canaanite dialect, or that Canaanite and Ugaritic are more closely related. When the phonograph became a popular instrument at the end of the nineteenth century, the use of this new machine, which reproduced both the Quran being recited and the song of an unknown woman, had to be categorized.
Two European scholars who recorded Quranic phonography are paid attention as well: Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje d.
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Their involvement with Quranic sound recording is placed within its historical context. Finally, a short impression is given of what survives of these early recordings. The Persian text, an annotated translation, and a map of certain endowed blocks are included. And yet their trauma resurfaces in the space of dreams and in the narrative itself, manifesting itself as literary madness. By that, he also disrupts the relationship between language and voice and urges us through his language play to hear, in Arabic, a different voice. The Syrian novelist, Attar, finds in Shakespeare powerful sites for the expression of exile, rejection of sentimental love, and resistance of patriarchy in Arab societies.
Her novel shows simultaneously identification with and challenges to the British Bard. Abstract: I shed light on the writing processes of the Ottoman literary narrative that the Scottish Ottomanist Elias John Wilkinson Gibb — created from until his early death in Through some of the primary sources found in the Gibb Collection and the E.
He did so in order to seek mercy for the killing of a ram that the king had ordered should not be harmed. As the poem is highly challenging lexically, an annotated edition of the Arabic text as well as a full English translation will be provided. Abstract: Millions of Yemenis face starvation as a result of the war.
In August , more than 51 civilians were killed, at least 40 of them young children, when a bomb hit a school bus. Yet as devastating as these strikes have been, more deadly to the Yemeni people overall are the coalition strikes targeting farms, fishing boats, food storage sites and transportation networks, which worsen the conditions that give rise to famine. Yet they continue to struggle for their rights and representation. Abstract: The killing of Jamal Khashoggi and the catastrophic war in Yemen has provoked intense and unprecedented public questioning about American ties to the Saudi regime in late , particularly the role of American arms and military support in the Saudi-led war in Yemen.
But rethinking the place of arms-making in our economy will entail a remaking of that foreign policy and envisioning a different kind of postcolonial world. The Gulf also increasingly shapes the political and economic policies of other Arab states, promoting economic liberalization along with hardening authoritarianism and repressing social protest.
Abstract: A new phase of the war appears to be unfolding in al-Mahra, the far eastern governorate of southern Yemen on the Indian Ocean next to Oman. In Saudi Arabian troops suddenly rolled through the streets of al-Ghaydha, the governorate capital, taking over the regional airport and announcing that the area had been placed under their security control.
The real reason for the Saudi presence has become visible: to build a long sought oil pipeline from Saudi Arabia to the Indian Ocean through Mahari lands. The Saudi—Emirati war in Yemen is just the most tragic example of an Arab state suffering from the geopolitical transformation of the geopolitical and regional order. This long overdue Congressional action to constrain executive war-making, however, would not have been possible without a tremendous grassroots mobilization against US involvement in this disastrous war and the surging progressive tide that is raising deeper questions about US foreign policy in the Middle East.
The article advances knowledge concerning different functions of ironic narratives, proposing that we need to distinguish between 1 radical irony and 2 conservative irony. It can be seen as a negotiation about the moral traditions that underpin the West as an imagined and narrated social system. The article argues that the Western self is partly constituted through ironic narrative forms. In this study, we use a nationally representative sample of 12, children, aged 0—5 years from Egypt to examine the impact of maternal employment on child nutritional indicators, namely: stunting, wasting, and being underweight and overweight.
We adopted various estimation methods to control for observable and unobservable household characteristics in order to identify the causal effect of maternal employment. These different techniques include, propensity score matching PSM , OLS regression with controlling for a wide range of individual characteristics, and an instrumental variable two-stage least squares IV 2SLS approach. On the other hand, the IV 2SLS suggests a stronger and significant association between maternal employment and poor nutritional status among children.
The article argues that this hybrid form is not accidental, but is an intentional project that allows the state to sustain neoliberal reforms, whilst maintaining its long-standing control over society and the economy. Abstract: This study provides econometric evidence about the impact that new chemical entity NCE launches had on premature mortality from 17 diseases in 9 Middle Eastern and African countries during the period — The greater the relative number of NCEs for a disease launched in a country, the greater the subsequent relative decline in premature mortality from that disease, controlling for the average rate of mortality decline in each country and from each disease.
An 8-year increase in the number of post NCEs ever launched is estimated to have reduced the number of years of potential life lost before age 75 YPLL75 in by 9.
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This is approximately half of the In the absence of 8 previous years of NCE launches, 2. Abstract: Financing for Development was addressed by the international community since more than 25 years, when the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development Monterrey, Mexico, March urged mobilising and increasing the effective use of financial resources to fulfil the internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals.
In , a new Development Agenda was designed and was based on the Development Finance. Consequently, the efficient exploitation of traditional and innovative finance resources in economic, social and human development has become a global top priority. This study analyses the impact of 7 resources of financial flows on 6 socio-economic variables in a sample of 19 MENA countries over the period — to test the efficient exploitation of these resources in development.
The results show that government spending and official development assistance are the most important factor in boosting development in the MENA region. International trade plays a limited role in financing development, whereas foreign direct investment has the least effect on MENA development. Abstract: After being in force for several years, sanctions against Iran were partly lifted on 16 January , reopening business options for the financial industry.
This paper investigates whether a breach of internationally imposed economic sanctions had a negative impact on the value of a bank that decided to implicitly or explicitly violate those sanctions. Using event study methodology, our analysis provides evidence that a breach of Iran-related sanctions by foreign banks caused considerable wealth reductions for their shareholders who finally bear the corresponding fining-costs. Finally, the study shows that the announced fining for a breach of sanctions does not induce spillover effects to non-fined banks.
Thus, the study provides important insights on reasons of the current shortage of foreign lending toward Iran.
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Abstract: This article seeks to explain the post acceleration of privatization in Turkey. Employing a Marxian analytical framework, the article argues that the acceleration of privatization in Turkey in the post period was the result of a powerful combination of support from the power bloc i. The power bloc saw previously unavailable advantages in supporting privatization within the context of the post domestic capital accumulation regime, and therefore acted to restructure the legal and institutional framework of the state to weaken the resistance of labor and facilitate the participation of potential investors in privatization tenders.
Abstract: This article argues that militant clients should be understood as a pillar of Iran's grand strategy and an extension of its military power. The article examines why Iran has relied on militant clients since the revolution and the benefits and costs of its client approach. In evaluating these issues, it identifies five main areas where Iran has gained from its client strategy: 1 maintaining independence from the West; 2 successfully exporting its religio-political worldview; 3 extending its military reach and power; 4 reducing political costs of its foreign activities; and 5 establishing needed regional allies.
It further identifies five main dangers that Iran faces by continuing its strategic behavior: 1 increased pressure from the United States and a broader US military regional footprint; 2 more unified regional adversaries; 3 the risk of unintended escalation with the United States and regional adversarial states; and 4 enduring regional instability and insecurity.
Kurds, socialists, Alevis, non-Muslims , hanging over their lives like the sword of Damocles.
The article also argues that the anti-terror operations that started to take place in the urban margins against Kurdish activists and socialist Alevi youth as early as were harbingers of a growing lawfare in Turkey, which gradually shifted to the center over the course of years. Abstract: Jihadist foreign fighters are frequently described as non-state actors whose prominence challenges the traditional, state-dominated international system and our understanding of it. In practice, however, foreign fighters rely heavily on the very states they reject.
Some of the most important foreign fighter movements in the world today receive massive and explicit state support, while still others rely on states to tolerate their fund-raising, transit, recruitment, and other core activities. Yet the scope, scale, and nature of this reliance varies tremendously, as does its overall impact. To stop or at least limit these flows, it is vital to change the policies and capacities of these state backers.